The Volcanic pistol and carbine fired 'rocket balls', conical hollow bullets full of fulminate of mercury. Sometimes, the magazine would detonate from recoil, and produce fireworks.
Henry adapted the system to use rimfire cartridges, loaded from the front like a BB gun. The side loading gate was 'King's Improvement' which gave the Henry awesome firepower. it was the Tommy Gun of its day.
The Savage revolver used a lever cocking system that worked a lot like a Volcanic pistol, why the handgun never was manufactured is unknown to me. Perhaps it was too slow, or the factory was too busy making rifles. It was wartime, after all.
Self contained shotgun shells were common by the time of the Civil War, Confederate cavalry and infantry used shotguns when muskets and carbines were not to be had.
An observer from Europe wrote, "Their cavalry fights were dismal affairs, both sides will will gallop with much shouting, then halt forty yards apart, where they take up a desultory fire with carbines and revolvers." Sorry to disappoint you ,pal.
Perhaps one of the most glorious and least remembered cavalry charges of all time was the Charge of the Heavy Brigade, when fat old General Scarlett charged a superior Russian force, up hill, and whipped them like rented mules. This was regular Russian horse, had it been Cossacks, who knows?
The Light Brigade's fiasco gets all the ink, but I remember that old fox hunter, red as a radish and blowing like a beached whale, and how he led his troopers from the front and won a great victory, little remembered.
If there is a horse soldier's Heaven, may he ride the clouds bellowing 'View,hallooo' any time he wants.